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Vratíkovský kras

 

Vratíkovský kras o rozloze 20 ha se nachází 3km od Boskovic a na Boskovicku je nejlépe vyvinutým krasem. Jedná se o onikátní ukázku kuželovitého paleokrasu v pokročilém stádiu vývoje.Skupiny jeskyňářských nadšenců se o tyto jeskyně zajímají více než 60 let.

Prví geologický útvar kolem Vratíkova vznikl asi před 285 miliony lety a první osídlení jeskyně Sklep bylo asi před 100 tisíci člověkem neandrtálským.

V roce 1983 probíhaly snahy prohlášení Vratíkovského krasu jako Přírodní chráněnou rezervaci, což se podařilo až v roce 1990, zásluhou Dr. Ivana Baláka.

Naši předchůdci věřili, že objeví rozsáhlejší jeskyně se skvosty podobnými Moravskému krasu a doufali ve zpřistupnění jaskyní. Po usilovné práci se jim podařilo objevit jeskyni Propasťovitou o délce 300 m ( nyní jeskyně čtyřka ). Dnes je známo celkem 16 jeskyní, např. Okno, Sklep, Čmeláci, Za zahradami, Pod smrkem...

V jeskyních neklesne vlhkost pod 95% a kolísání teploty zimního a letního období není vyšší než 0,5 C.

SKLEP

Tato jeskyně je nejznámější z historického hlediska a dosud nejznámějšími nálezy a podrobným zkoumáním. Byly zde nalezeny:

Celistvé kosti a zuby pleistocénních obratlovců (jeskynní medvěd, sob, nosorožec, kůň, hyena, liška lední, sněhule,…)

Ø Stopy diluviálního člověka, spálené a roztříštěné kosti, uhlíky, pazourkový odštěpek.

Ø Čepelovité retušované škrabadlo, slabě platinovaná čepelka.

Tyto paleolontologické a archeologické památky jsou součástí muzejních sbírek Národního muzea v Praze, Antroposu v Brně a muzea v Boskovicích.

 

 

Čtyřka

Jeskyně Čtyřka byla objevena v roce 1947. V padesátých letech byla tato jeskyně nazývána jako Propasťovitá nebo Krápníková. Můžeme o ní mluvit jako o nejrozsáhlejší jeskyni z jeskyní dosud objevených. Má 2 vchody, je dlouhá 400 m a mezi její skvosty patří drobné mrkvovité stalaktity, místy brčka, hojně se vyskytující sintrové podlahové náteky se stalagnáty a stalagmity. Vzácné jsou excentrické a jezerní formy sintrů.

Paleontologický průzkum zastihl osteologický materiál medvěda,tura, zajíce, jelena, srnce, koně, nosorožce a bizona.

 

Okno

Jedná se o prostornou chodbu o šířce až 3 m a výšce 2 m, ve které v roce 1997 byla nalezena při průkopu jižní větve stehenní kost medvěda.

Pod smrkem

Objevitel této nejkrásnější jeskyně v komplexu Vratíkovského krasu je Pavel Vašek z Velenova.

Pro jeskyni je charakteristická bohatá sintrová výzdoba, zastoupená především monocentrickými formami (brčka, drobné mrkvovité stalaktity, kuželovité stalagmity). Ve spodní části jeskyně jsou kuželovité hrázky s pisoáry (jeskynními perlami). Nejkrásnější na sintrové výzdobě celé jeskyně je její mnohobarevné zabarvení od sněhově bílé, celou škálu žluté, červené, růžové, oranžové do hněda až téměř k černé. V současné době, aby nedošlo k poničení krápníkové výzdoby je její vchod uzavřen.

 

 

Ve Vratíkovském krasu se v dřívějších dobách nacházela důlní dílna. Těžba železné rudy ve Vratíkově skončila asi před 150 lety. Nezachovaly se nám bohužel žádné informace o době těžby, jejím rozsahu a hornické plány. Mezi pozůstatky patří:

Ø Stará důlní dílna

Ø Dvě dobývací štoly z 18. - 19. století. Jednou z nich je Frantova štola dlouhá 150 m, která byla objevena v listopadu 1990. Pojmenována je podle objevitele, předsedy speleologické organizace, Františka Jakubce z Vratíkova.

Ø Slovanská huť

 

 

 

 

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